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H2403 = chaṭṭâ'âh = From H2398; an offence (sometimes habitual sinfulness), and its penalty, occasion, sacrifice, or expiation; also (concretely) an offender: - punishment (of sin), purifying (-fication for sin), sin (-ner, offering).

Gen 4:7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.

H6588= pesha‛ = From H6586; a revolt (national, moral or religious): - rebellion, sin, transgression, trespassive

Pro 10:19 In the multitude of words there wanteth not sin: but he that refraineth his lips is wise.

G266 = hamartia = From G264; sin (properly abstract): - offence, sin (-ful).

G264 = hamartanō = Perhaps from G1 (as a negative particle) and the base of G3313; properly to miss the mark (and so not share in the prize), that is, (figuratively) to err, especially (morally) to sin: - for your faults, offend, sin, trespass.

Rom 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:

hamartia (Strong's #266) Sin

hamartema (Strong's #265)

parakoe (Strong's #3876) Disobedience

anomia (Strong's #458) Unrighteousness, Lawlessness

paranomia (Strong's #3892) Breaking the Law

parabasis (Strong's #3847) Transgression

paraptoma (Strong's #3900) Trespass, Fault

agnoema (Strong's #51) Error

hettema (Strong's #2275) Failure

This group contains numerous wordshamartia, hamartema, parakoe, anomia, paranomia, parabasis, paraptoma, agnoema, hettemaand more can easily be added. It is not difficult to see why: sin may be viewed from an infinite number of aspects in all languages. The diagnosis of sin primarily belongs to Scripture, where it is viewed from the greatest number of perspectives and described with many various images. When sin is viewed as the missing of a mark or aim, it is referred to as hamartia or as hamartema. When seen as the transgressing of a line, sin is termed parabasis. When understood as disobeying a voice, sin is called parakoe. When perceived as falling where one should have stood upright, sin is labelled paraptoma. When portrayed as the ignorance of what one should have known, sin is termed agnoema. When depicted as the diminishing of what should have been given in full measure, sin is called hettema. When viewed as the nonobservance of a law, sin is termed anomia or paranomia. When seen as a discord in the harmonies of God's universe, sin is referred to as plemmeleia.Sin may be described in ways almost beyond number.

We will begin our study of this word group with hamartia, the word most frequently used to describe sin. Hamartia's etymology is uncertain and so cannot help us accurately define the word or distinguish it from the other words in this group. Suidas derived hamartia from marpto, as though hamartia came from hamarptia (a failing to grasp). Buttmann's conjecture that hamartia belongs to the root meros (Strong's #3313), meiromai, on which a negative intransitive verb (to be without one's share of, to miss) was formed, has found more favor. Only this, however, is obvious: when sin is contemplated as hamartia, it is regarded as a failing (or missing) of the true end and scope of our lives, namely God.

Sin resulting in punishment

It can be useful to consider sin against God as similar to sin against society. The Romans had an interest in keeping public order if only to insure tax revenue would continue uninterrupted. For this reason they used the death penalty even for cases of theft. The first reason to punish sin is self-protection, A dead thief will steal no longer.

The second reason to punish is vengeance. Someone can commit an act so offensive that people rise up to execute him. This is seen with lynch mobs. Some cite the offensiveness of sin against a Holy God as reason enough for punishment.

A third reason for punishment is correction. Our prison systems (often called departments of correction) see themselves as in the business of achieving the rehabilitation of offenders. This is often similar to the reason parents give punishment to their children, so they learn to achieve self-discipline.

We can see examples of punishment applied to the nation of Israel in all three ways.

The debt aspect of sin

A debt arises when someone takes possession of something that belongs to another. For example, when a person takes money from a bank, there is usually an agreement as to how the money will be repaid and a consequence if it is not. If we consider what belongs to God, he know he created the world and everything in it, including us. If we ignore God and live as we wish, we incur a debt.

We can see that whatever we do on our own (not trusting in God) is sin. This also is captured in the “missing the mark” definition.

Rom 14:23 And he that doubteth is damned if he eat, because he eateth not of faith: for whatsoever is not of faith is sin.

Some verses shed light on how the debt of sin is transferred to Jesus.

Joh 1:29 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.

2Co 5:21 For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

1Jn 2:2 And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.

Rom 12:19 Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

Rom 14:9 For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.

As Jesus has paid for all sin, he has the judicial right to forgive or judge sin. He has chosen to extend forgiveness of sins to all who trust in him.

Col 1:14 In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins:

Jesus is our example of sinlessness by not seeking after self.

Joh 5:19 Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.

Joh 5:30 I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me.

Joh 6:38 For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.

Proportional payment for sin seems to be implied at the judgment of the lost.

Rev 20:13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

There seems to be additional support for the idea of payment for sins;

Mat 18:32 Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me:

Mat 18:33 Shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellowservant, even as I had pity on thee?

Mat 18:34 And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him.

It seems that sin can accumulate for a people as increasing debt such that a time is reached where judgment is justified.

Gen 15:16 But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full.

Mat 12:36 But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment.

Rom 14:11 For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.

Rom 14:12 So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.

1Th 2:16 Forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved, to fill up their sins alway: for the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.

Is ignorance a means by which sin is not charged to an account?

Joh 9:41 Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should have no sin: but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth.

Rom 5:13 (For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

Can people be held accountable for disregarding God?

Rom 1:20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:

Can Christians not sin?

Heb 3:13 But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.

Heb 10:26 For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins,

1Jn 1:8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.

Rom 6:6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.

Gal 5:13 For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.

Gal 5:14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

Gal 5:15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.

Gal 5:16 This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.

Consider the incompatibility of being a Christian and sin.

1Jn 3:9 Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. .

"Commit" is poieō in the present tense which always speaks of continuous action unless the context limits it to punctiliar action, namely, the mere mention of the fact of the action, without the mentioning of details. The translation reads, "Every one who has been born out of God, with the present result that he is a born-one (of God), does not habitually do sin."